Codes of Environmental Mangement Practice

 Code of Practices: Characteristics, Positives and Negatives From Nash and Erhenfeld, MIT 1977

Code of Practice Attributes Motivators Benefits w.r.t. sustainability Limitations w.r.t. sustainability
Regulation Designed to achieve problems of the 70’2 polluted rivers, smog-filled skies, illegal and hazardous waste sites Strong enforcement via fines or jail to owners Quickly responded to major pollution problems Has failed in preventing acid train, toxic contamination, stratospheric ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity and global warmingStatic, public and industry negotiation and difficult to chance once established

Lacks innovation and incentives for going better than minimum. First response is legal challenge

focus attention on resisting change

Costs is 150 billion $ 2% of GNP

Responsible Care Nepal disaster instrumental in acceptanceUses verification of management system with four volunteers

  • 2 from industry,
  • 1 from local,
  • 1 from environmental group
Required for membership into trade association Gives clout to managers who are environmentally mindedIncreases attention to environmental maters

Creates positive interaction with community

Created change with suppliers, distributors

Only Chemical companiesNot been that effective at community involvement with diverse interest points

has not lead to strong changes in product design or training

Asks for changes in action but does not change values

ICC’s business Charter for Sustainable Development Premised on strong economic growth is the way to make changes in practicestarted in 1991

Established GEMI to present a forum for pool knowledge and environmental strategies

Developed a self audit to help firms understand where they are

Endorsed by more firms other any other code Identifies important aspects of sustainable business behavior Members are not required to adapt policiesDoes not require reporting

Not possible to measure changes as mechanisms to measure and report on improvement are not part of code

CERES Principles Formed by social responsible investors, environmental advocate, union, religions groupsAsk for firms to disclose information about companies impacts

Uses the Valdez Principles

(based from the Sullivan principles used in South Africa)

Securities law allows for owners of 1000 shares or more to make this a referendum therefore offers referendum by stakeholders to “endorse” these principledeveloped protocol to drop companies who have not publish report or pay dues 42 large companies had this referendum raisedattains ‘pubic accountability with it s report

Board of directors work with CERES to develop environmental consciousness at high levels. Each applicant is reviews by board concerning policies, energy use, health and safety, environmental accounting

Emphasis stakeholder interaction

Few companies signed on (less than 20)Process of endorsing principles takes years of negotiations

Has not seen serious changes in the operation of a business

ISO 14001 Purpose was to harmonize the independent development of EMS standard in Britain, Eco labeling standards of Japan and Canada, and avoid trade barriers to countries claiming only “BS7750 need apply”Developed with a broad sector of interest, including industry, governments, citizens and (in Europe) environmental advocacy groups

(US position was to weaken that, making it more procedural. flexible and therefor maintain management prerogatives and secrecy.)

Built to make a level playing field

Based on the success of ISO 9000

Compliance is done through third party certification (consciousness) Intended to be proactive, insure continuous improvement of environmentRequires a commitment to prevention of pollution (however water down by the inclusion of end of pipe) Does not seriously sequester the opinions of interested parties, thus does not get the entire pictureUS firms not motivated to join, despite success of ISO 9000

does not go far enough to change consciousness of people in the firm

EMAS Basic EMS plus requires non regulated improvements in raw material usage, and performance of suppliersDefine performance levels for BATNEEC.

Requires firms to publish annual environmental effects register

3rd party verifier (consciousness) Has tools built in to motivate firm to go over and beyond compliance with regulation Not a market factor in the USA
The Natural Step Dissemination of easily understood, scientifically based principles that lead a company toward sustainable society Easily understoodRequires top down approach

Concisely articulate what a firm must do to reorient their activities

Business practice have changed as a result of this processcompanies have endorsed system

principles encompass much of what environmentalist are concerned with

Lack of requiring, consistency.Difficulty in maintaining direction

ISO 14001 And Where The Natural Step Principles Can Be Applied

4.1 General requirements

  • EMS consists of the following elements:
4.2 Environmental policy

  • Gaining the commitment and backing of senior managers throughout the business
  • Drawing up a policy that states your commitment to compliance with legal and regulatory demands, continual improvement, the prevention of pollution and other requirements which the organization subscribes to.
  • Establish a framework to set and review objectives and targets
  • Making the policy available to the public

  • Establish a Commitment to sustainability
  • Establish TNS as the framework to set and review objectives and targets
4.3 Planning

4.3.1 Identifying the elements of your business that impact on the environment

4.3.2 Establishing access to relevant environmental legislation and regulations and other requirements4.3.3 Producing objectives and targets for environmental improvement

4.3.4 Establishing management program(s) to achieve them (including opportunities for new products or services


4.3.1 Use TNS to help determine the significance of impacts to the environment4.3.2 Identify TNS as other requirements to which the organization subscribes4.3.3 Use TNS in establishing environmental objectives

4.4.4 Use TNS is used in development of new products or services

4.4 Implementation and Operation

4.4.1 Providing resources for personnel

  • Defining who does what
  • Reporting on the syste

4.4.2 Identifying training needs and raising awareness of environmental issues

  • Ensuring competence of staff

4.4.3 Communicating effectively internally and externally including the importance of conformance and potential consequences 4.4.4 Establish an EMS documentation system4.4.5 Controlling your management system 4.4.6 Controlling operations that may have an environmental impact

4.4.7 Planning for accidents and emergencies with an environmental impact


4.4.1 Use TNS indicators in the reporting4.4.2 Raising awareness with TNS principles4.4.3 TNS helps to identify importance of conformance and potential consequences

4.4.7 TNS helps emergency planning be aware of consequences

4.5 Checking and corrective action

4.5.1 Measuring accurately Continually ensuring that progress against targets is on track

Continually ensuring legislative compliance

4.5.2 Taking action to correct areas that don’t comply 4.5.3 Recording information on the operation of the environmental management system

4.5.4 Conducting audits


4.5.1 TNS can be used to establish performance indicators to measure4.5.2 TNS training helps to take corrective and preventative actions seriously4.5.3 Record TNS training shows objective evidence

4.5.4 Audit also for TNS training and use in impact and aspects, new product development, etc.

4.6 Management review

  • Senior managers checking that the system is adequate, appropriate and effective, and making any necessary changes
TNSComparison of Environmental Performance with TNS principles will identify potential needs to change and ensure that the system is suitable, adequate and effective.